By: Mick Yates
Gaius Julius Caesar Octavianus (63BC to 14AD) was the adopted son of Julius Caesar, with no official power in Rome.
Through a mixture of brilliance and cold calculation, he became the sole power in Rome, and in 27BC, the Senate gave him the name Augustus, and he became in effect Emperor. Always maintaining that his aim was to restore the republic, Augustus expanded the Empire as far as Gaul, and the far reaches of the Danube.
After 100 years of civil war, Rome at last had peace. For 200 years, the Pax Romana existed in Rome. He built an efficient, dynamic government, establishing a Roman government that was to remain for over 300 years. Literature and art flourished, and Augustus claimed that he "found Rome a city of stone and left it a city of marble". A leader of vision, but a practical one.
Augustus and the Principate, by W. K. Lacey