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Seven Tools of Quality
Tools that help an organization understand its processes in order to improve them: -cause and effect diagram (Ishikawa diagram) - A tool developed by Kaoru Ishikawa for analyzing process dispersion. It illustrates the main causes and subcauses leading to an effect or symptom. It is sometimes referred to as a fishbone chart because it resembles a fish skeleton -check sheet - A data recording tool designed by the user to facilitate the interpretation of results. -control chart - A graphic comparison of actual performance with precomputed control limits. The performance data consists of groups of measurements selected in sequence of production that preserves the order. It is used to detect assignable causes of variation in a process as opposed to random variation. -flowchart - A type of planning and control chart designed to show graphically the relationship between planned performance and actual performance over time. It was named after its originator, Henry L. Gantt. It follows job progress, where one horizontal line represents the time schedule and another adjacent line represents the actual performance of the project. -histogram - A graph of contiguous vertical bars representing a frequency distribution in which the groups of items are marked on the x axis and the number of items in each class is indicated on the y axis. The pictorial nature allows people to see patterns that are difficult to see in a table of numbers. -Pareto chart - A graphical tool for ranking causes from most significant to least significant. It is based on the Pareto principle which states that a small percentage of a group accounts for the largest fraction of the impact, value, etc. That is 80% of the effects come from 20% of the possible causes. -scatter chart - A graphical technique used to analyze the relationship between two variables. Two sets of data are plotted on a graph, with the y axis used for the variable to be predicted, and the x axis used for the variable to make the prediction.