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Task structure;
One of Fielder's situational contingencies that described the degree to which job assignments were formalized and procedurized.;
Theory of Constraints (TOC);
A management philosophy developed by Dr. Eliyahu M. Goldratt that is broken down into three interrelated areas - logistics, performance measurement, and logical thinking. Logistics include drum-buffer-rope scheduling, buffer management, and VAT analysis. Performance measurement includes throughput, inventory and operating expense, and the five focusing steps. Logical thinking includes identifying the root problem (current reality tree), identifying and expanding win-win solutions (evaporating cloud and future reality tree), and developing implementation plans (prerequisite tree and transition tree).;
Total Employee Involvement;
An empowerment technique where employees participate in actions and decision making that were traditionally reserved for management.;
Total Quality Management (TQM);
Describes Japanese style management approaches to quality improvement. It includes the long term success of the organization through customer satisfaction and is based on participation of all members of the organization in improving process, products, service, culture, etc.;
Trait;
A distinguishing quality or characteristic of a person. For a trait to be developed in a person, that person must first believe in and value that trait.;
Transactional leaders;
Leaders who guide or motivate their followers in the direction of established goals by clarifying role and task requirements. ;
Transformational leaders;
Leaders who provide individualized consideration, intellectual stimulation, and possess charisma. Bernard Bass (1996): A Transformational Leader exhibits: 1. Charismatic leadership or idealized influence. He or she avoids using power for personal gain and only when needed. 2. Inspirational motivation. The leader gets followers involved in envisioning attractive future states. The leader creates clearly communicated expectations that followers want to meet and also demonstrates commitment to goals and the shared vision. 3. Intellectual stimulation. Transformational leaders stimulate their followers' efforts to be innovative and creative by questioning assumptions, reframing problems, and approaching old situations in new ways. 4. Individualized consideration. Transformational leaders pay special attention to each individual's needs for achievement and growth by acting as coach or mentor. Followers and colleagues are developed to successively higher levels of potential.;
Trust;
The belief in the integrity, character, and ability of a leader.;